The Paul P. Carbone Award in International Oncology is given for outstanding contributions to oncology or cancer research in one or more developing countries by an individual from a resource-rich country. Paul P. Carbone was a pioneer American oncologist, who, as the Associate Director for the Clinical Oncology Program at the National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, played a critical role in the development of cancer chemotherapy. Subsequently, he continued his work as the Director of the Cancer Center at the University of Madison, Wisconsin. From the beginning, he recognized not only the needs of patients in developing countries, but also the contribution that scientific research conducted in such countries could and should make to the global efforts against cancer. Dr Carbone's family have established the Paul P. Carbone MD Memorial Foundation (www.carbonefoundation.org) for the "support of scientific, educational, and charitable endeavors that reflect Dr Carbone's practice of the art and science of oncology and his lifelong dedication to teaching and mentoring".